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گیاه شناسی - جلبک
گیاه شناسی
شنبه 21 دی 1387

جلبک

شنبه 21 دی 1387

نوع مطلب :
نویسنده :ش ش

هر جا که اندکی خیس و یا مرطوب باشد گیاهان بدون گل یافت می‌‌شوند. ساده‌ترین آنها، جُلبَک ها، خزه ها، هپاتیکها و سرخسها هستند. اکثر آنها نزدیک و یا داخل آب زندگی می‌کنند و ریشه حقیقی ندارند بازدانگان، پیشرفته‌ترین گیاهان بدون گل محسوب می‌‌شوند. آنها دارای ریشه‌های عمیق و برگهای ضد آب هستند و می‌‌توانند در مکانهای خشک زندگی کنند.

جلبک ها معمولاً در حاشیه ها می رویند

اشنه دریایی غول پیکر، طویل‌ترین و زودرشدترین علف دریایی است. این گیاه که در سواحل کالیفرنیا یافت می‌شود در یک فصل می‌‌تواندبه طول 91 متر (300 پا) رشد کند. درخت سرخس که در نواحی مداری یافت می‌شود ،می‌تواند به ارتفاع بیش از 23 متر(75 پا) برسد و برگ ساقهایش نیز به طول 5 متر (16 پا) برسند. زمانی گیاهان ماقبل تاریخ از خانواده پنجه‌گرگیان جنگلهای عظیمی را شکل داده بودند آنها سنگواره شدند تا رگه‌های زغال سنگ امروزی را تشکیل دهند.

از دیگز نمونه‌های جلبک می‌‌توان به علف دریایی قرمز و علف صخره و کاهوی دیایی اشاره کرد.

پیشرفته ترین نوع جلبك chara نام دارد كه شبیه گیاهان است و حد واسط بین گیاهان و جلبك هاست.این جلبك ها بر خلاف سایر جلبك ها مایكروسكوپی هستند.و در wet land یافت می شوند.

و یك سری مراحل جنینی كه خاص گیاهان است و در سایر جلبكها دیده نمیشود در chara وجود دارد.

و چون chara فاقد بافت است جز گیاهان محسوب نمی شود.




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